What is the norm of estrogen in women?
Hormones have the most direct effect on the work of the body, especially the female. And the functioning of not only the genitals, but also many others depends on them. What functions do estrogens do? And for what reasons can their level decrease or increase? It is worth finding out!
What is estrogen?
Estrogens - a group of female hormones, which in small quantities are contained in the male body. It includes many different hormones, but the most common are estradiol, estriol and estrone. They are produced by the follicles or, in other words, by the bubbles, in which eggs form each menstrual cycle.
After ovulation, the synthesis of estrogen is carried out by the yellow body - a temporary endocrine gland, which is formed after the release of the egg from the follicle. Also, a small amount is produced by the adrenal glands.
The functions of all estrogens are similar, but some have a more pronounced effect. Also the difference lies in the quantity.For example, estradiol is considered the most powerful hormone, but is produced in relatively small volumes. Estrone is weaker, but is synthesized in large quantities. The weakest, but one of the most important is estriol. And its effect on the body depends on the concentration.
What functions do they perform?
Estrogens perform the following important functions:
- Formation and proper development of female genital organs. Without estrogen, a woman would not be a full-fledged woman.
- Formation of secondary sexual characteristics, for example, such as the characteristic form of the pelvis (it is wider than the male and has rounded feminine forms), body hair growth of the pubic and axillary hollows, an increase in the mammary glands.
- Increase the thickness of the mucous layer of the uterus in the first phase of the menstrual cycle.
- The increase in the uterus in size after pregnancy.
- Formation of the mucous membranes of the vagina, as well as maintaining the acidic environment necessary for normal functioning (from puberty to menopause).
- The distribution of adipose tissue on the female type, namely on the buttocks, chest, thighs.Just this makes the figure more feminine and attractive for the stronger sex.
- Delay in the body of sodium and water. This function helps to avoid dehydration and exhaustion. This effect becomes more pronounced before each menstruation (it is considered one of the symptoms of PMS - premenstrual syndrome).
- Increased mobility of the cervix, which provides a more rapid penetration of sperm into the uterus and their merger with the egg.
- Increase bone density, prevent their destruction.
- Acceleration of metabolism and increase in the rate of metabolic processes occurring in the body.
- Reducing the level of "bad" cholesterol and increasing the amount of "good". Thus, prevention of atherosclerosis is ensured.
What is the norm of estrogen for women? The level depends on the specific hormone, as well as on the phase of the menstrual cycle and even on the laboratory in which the research is being conducted (the sensitivity of the equipment used may vary). It is worth separately and in detail to consider each of the three species mentioned above.
The rate of estradiol in the first half of the menstrual cycle is about 15-160 nanograms per liter, during ovulation - 34-400, and in the second half of the cycle - about 27-247 nanograms per liter. During pregnancy, the amount is 200-4000 ng / l in the first trimester, from 1005 to 17900 in the second and about 4350-17600 in the third. After menopause, the level is sharply reduced and drops to 5-30 nanograms per liter (approximately the same is the norm for men).
The main reasons for the increase in estradiol are uterine bleeding of unknown nature, cirrhosis of the liver, hormone-dependent ovarian tumors, premature or excessively rapid sexual development.
Estradiol deficiency can be observed with exhaustion or malnutrition, with reduced or impaired ovarian function, as well as with Shereshevsky-Turner syndrome (a hereditary disease characterized by underdevelopment of the genitals).
Signs of changes in estradiol include such as menstrual failures, osteoporosis (destruction of bone tissue), infertility, delayed puberty or the absence of secondary sexual characteristics, problems with skin and hair, changes in mood, insomnia, and so on.
Estriol is produced during pregnancy, and its level depends on the period.So, in the early stages of the norm is about 0.7-8.5. By mid-pregnancy, the level increases to 12-51 nmol / l. By the end of the term of carrying the amount may be about 25-110 nmol / l.
Elevated estriol can be observed in multiple pregnancies, some liver diseases, as well as excessively large fetuses. Causes of decline can be intrauterine infections or pathology of fetal development, post-term pregnancy, placental insufficiency, increased risks of premature birth, or the threat of termination of pregnancy.
Signs of increasing or decreasing the level of estriol: the threat of termination of pregnancy or preterm labor, fetal pathology, intrauterine infections, FPN (placental insufficiency).
In the first half of the cycle, the amount of estrone should be about 5-9 ng%, in the second half - about 4-25, and during pregnancy - from 1500 to 3000 ng%.
Low estrone can be observed during menopause, decreased ovarian function, infertility, and bone diseases. The reasons for the increase can be a tumor or polycystic ovarian cancer, increased blood clotting, impaired functioning of the thyroid gland, an increase in body weight.
Symptoms of changes in the level of estrone: malfunctions of the menstrual cycle, problems with conception, delayed sexual development in girls.
How to solve a problem?
First of all, you should go to the gynecologist to assess the hormonal levels and identify the causes of failures. As a rule, in order to increase the level of certain hormones, experts prescribe hormonal drugs. But if the change in quantity is caused by other disorders or concomitant diseases, then they should be eliminated. To do this, it is recommended to undergo a full examination and begin treatment.
Is it possible to avoid changes or fluctuations in estrogen levels? To do this, follow a few simple rules:
- Do not take hormones without consulting a doctor.
- Regularly visit the gynecologist in time to detect and eliminate any abnormalities.
- Keep track of your health, in time treat all diseases.
- Lead a healthy lifestyle, avoid severe stress.
All that remains is for the fair sex to wish women's health and stability.
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