Tourette syndrome - symptoms and signs, treatment
Tourette syndrome, as Wikipedia says, is a hereditary disease manifested by tics that begin in childhood. Symptoms include simple, complex, and vocal tics. The diagnosis is clinical. Treatment may include clonidine or antipsychotics.
Tourette syndrome is probably inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with variable penetrance; a specific genetic disorder is unknown. The ratio of boys and girls is 3: 1. Simple transient tics and Tourette syndrome are stages or varying severity variants of the disease.
Tourette syndrome - symptoms and signs
Movement disorders can begin with simple tics that progress to multiple complex tics, including respiratory and vocal. Vocal tics can begin as grunts or barking sounds and develop into compulsive utterances, often loud and shrill.Patients can arbitrarily suppress tics for seconds or minutes. Coprolalia is noted in some patients. Severe tics and coprolalia lead to physical and social disability. Echola-lia is common.
Tourette syndrome - diagnosis
The diagnosis is clinical. For a differential diagnosis of Tourette syndrome and transient tics, the doctor needs to observe the patient for some time. Concomitant diseases are common and can further aggravate the patient's condition.
Tourette syndrome - treatment
Clonidine, 0.05–0.1 mg orally, 3 or 4 times a day is effective in some patients. Side effects in the form of weakness may limit the dose; hypotension-ziya is rare. Antipsychotics may be required. The smallest dose that is required to make tics transferable is applied; doses gradually decrease after ticks decrease. Side effects in the form of dysphoria, parkinsonism, akathisia, and slow dyscnemia can limit the use of antipsychotics; using the smallest daily and highest evening doses can reduce side effects.
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