How to pour the foundation
You will need
- - shovel;
- - sand;
- - stones;
- - fittings;
- - polyethylene film;
- - concrete;
- - edged boards;
- - concrete mixer.
Dig a trench at a depth of 0.6-0.8 m along the perimeter and under the future bearing wall. Choose a trench width depending on the material you plan to use when building walls and the bearing capacity of the soil.
Build a cushion for the foundation, which will remove excess moisture. To do this, pour a layer of fine-grained sand about 15 cm thick at the bottom of the trench. Tamper it thoroughly, wetting it with water. Do not use the extracted soil to create a pillow.
Install the formwork. In this case, accuracy is important, therefore, starting to work, expose all the central axes of the foundation and check the equality of the diagonals. Ensure that the centerlines do not differ from those projected by more than a centimeter. Perhaps somewhere it will be necessary to trim the walls of the trench and once again make bedding and tamping sand.
For removable formwork for the foundation, you can use edged boards 4-5 cm thick as shields. If you take the old sheets of corrugated board or slate for this, you can not remove the formwork. It is better to prepare and install it right under the whole foundation. Do not forget in the corners on the formwork to mark the upper limit of the end of the foundation. Its top must be strictly horizontal, even if there is a certain slope of the surrounding terrain.
Prepare for the reinforcement of the foundation. Use for reinforcement vertical connections with a diameter of 5-10 mm, for horizontal connections - 15-20 mm. The distance between the bars of the reinforcement should be about 20 cm.
Before placing the reinforcement in the formwork, ensure the maximum tightness of the latter. This will allow the water to remain in the cement mortar for as long as possible. And the slower the concrete hardens, the stronger the foundation will be. To ensure tightness, it is necessary to line the walls and bottom of the formwork with plastic wrap or similar material.
So that the reinforcement does not rust, and the strip foundation does not lose strength, it is necessary to avoid its contact with the walls and bottom of the formwork.To do this, place stones with a diameter of about 5 cm in problem areas.
The most crucial stage of laying the foundation - pouring concrete. It is advisable to rent at least the simplest concrete mixer or order ready-made concrete in the organization engaged in its manufacture. After all, concrete should be poured without interruption, in one step. Fill carefully, without moving the reinforcement or allowing the formation of voids. Constantly bayonet the solution with a thick metal rod or wooden stake. Be careful not to damage the plastic film.
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